全球化共识的死亡

剑桥-世界经济已经见证了一次全球化的崩溃。金本位制时代——伴随着资本自由流动以及开放贸易——在1914年突然终止,并且在第一次世界大战后也没能得到恢复。我们将要见证另一个类似的全球经济崩溃吗?

这个问题并不是凭空想像的。虽然经济全球化已经使发达国家达到前所未有的繁荣水平,并惠及中国以及亚洲其他地区几千万的贫穷工人,但是它是建立在不稳固的基础上的。和倾向依靠国内法律和政治制度的国内市场不同,全球市场的“根基是很虚弱的”。没有全球性的反托拉斯机关,没有全球性的最终贷款人,没有全球性的调控者,没有全球性的安全网,以及当然没有的全球性的民主。换句话说,全球市场的治理很无力,并因而使其缺乏公众正当性。

最近的事件加强了讨论这些问题的紧迫性。美国的总统选举活动突显了世界上最强大的国家对开放贸易支持的脆弱性。次级抵押贷款危机显示了缺乏国际协调和规则是怎样加剧金融市场固有的脆弱性的。食品价格的上涨暴露了没有全球转让和补偿安排的经济相互依赖具有的消极面。

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