起業家が尊重される文化

世界各国の政府で、起業家を育成しようとする動きが見られる。ビジネスの始動にかかる経費は比較的低いが、それぞれの小企業は実験段階にあるため、国の経済を変えることができるような会社を作るまでには、さらに、世界にとって重要な会社に成長するためには、相当数の実験をこなさなければならない。いわば起業家は保育器の役目を果たしており、経済が長期にわたって成功するためには欠かせないものなのである。

最近では主に政策や政治姿勢が各国の起業家レベルの差を生み出すと考えられているが、実はそれぞれの国内での起業家レベルにも大きく差が出ていることがわかっている。上海市民は北京市民よりも起業精神に満ちているといわれるし、ウクライナのへルソン州の町民はキエフ市民よりも起業に熱心である。

ストックホルム経済大学のマリアッサンタ・ジァネッティとアンドレイ・シモノフは最近の研究で、スウェーデン国内の地方自治体間における起業家レベルが大きく異なっていることを明らかにした。起業家の定義を、自らが管理する会社で、少なくとも非常勤で働き、収入を得る人たちとし、289の地方自治体それぞれの人口に対して起業家の占める割合が1.5%から18.5%に及び、大きく異なっているとした。

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