Pedro Molina

Il faut sauver la mondialisation

CAMBRIDGE – À en croire les marchés boursiers et les taux d’intérêt, l’économie américaine a vu le pire et entame désormais une lente convalescence. Mais les ennuis de la planète ne font que commencer. Si l’on ne répare pas la mondialisation comme il se doit, les perspectives économiques seront infimes pour les pays pauvres comme pour les riches.

Le pire serait un retour aux années 1930, lorsque les pays entravaient le négoce par de hautes barrières et se retranchaient dans l’isolationnisme au détriment de tous. Heureusement, ce scénario est aujourd’hui éloigné de nous. Mais le deuxième scénario du pire serait de présumer qu’un simple ravaudage suffira à rendre la mondialisation saine et durable. Il nous faut faire preuve de créativité, par de véritables efforts, pour combler les profondes fissures révélées par la crise.

Je commencerai par la bonne nouvelle. La riposte générale n’a peut-être pas été grandiose mais elle n’a pas non plus débouché sur la foire d’empoigne que l’on craignait. Le G20 n’a certes pu s’accorder sur un plan de relance fiscal coordonné ni sur un programme concret de réforme du système bancaire. Mais il s’est associé au Fonds monétaire international en fournissant des ressources supplémentaires. Et le score des nouvelles mesures protectionnistes prises dans le monde depuis le début de la crise financière n'empêchera pas la grande majorité de dormir. La mondialisation n’a donc pas encore reçu de coup mortel – du moins pas pour le moment.

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