Qué necesita el mundo de los BRICS

CAMBRIDGE – En 2001, Jim O’Neill (jefe de investigaciones en Goldman Sachs) ganó notoriedad al acuñar el término BRIC para referirse a las cuatro economías en desarrollo más grandes del mundo: Brasil, Rusia, India y China. Ya pasó más de una década y sin embargo, lo único que los cuatro parecen tener en común es el hecho de ser los únicos países no integrantes de la OCDE listados entre las 15 economías más grandes del mundo (ajustadas por poder adquisitivo).

Los cuatro tienen estructuras económicas muy diferentes: Rusia y Brasil dependen de las materias primas, India del sector servicios y China de las fabricaciones. Brasil y la India son democracias, mientras que China y Rusia, decididamente, no lo son. Y, como explica Joseph Nye en un artículo de su autoría, Rusia es una superpotencia en decadencia, mientras que China y (en menor medida) los otros dos países están en ascenso.

Sin embargo, en un extraño caso de imaginación convertida en realidad, los BRICS (los cuatro originales con el agregado de Sudáfrica) crearon un grupo aparte, mantienen reuniones periódicas y tienen iniciativas políticas propias. El proyecto más ambicioso que han encarado hasta el momento es la creación de un banco de ayuda al desarrollo.

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