Was die Welt von den BRICS-Staaten braucht

CAMBRIDGE: Der Begriff BRIC-Staaten wurde bekanntlich 2001 von Jim O’Neill von Goldman Sachs als Sammelbezeichnung für die vier größten Schwellenvolkswirtschaften, Brasilien, Russland, Indien und China geprägt. Mehr als ein Jahrzehnt später freilich ist so ziemlich das Einzige, was diese Länder gemeinsam haben, dass sie allein unter den 15 weltgrößten Volkswirtschaften (kaufkraftbereinigt) keine OECD-Mitglieder sind.

Die vier Länder haben deutlich unterschiedliche Wirtschaftsstrukturen: In Russland und Brasilien beruht die Wirtschaft auf Rohstoffen, in Indien auf Dienstleistungen und in China auf der produzierenden Industrie. Brasilien und Indien sind Demokratien, China und Russland dagegen eindeutig nicht. Und wie Joseph Nye geschrieben hat, ist Russland eine Supermacht im Niedergang, während China und (weniger ausgeprägt) die anderen im Aufstieg begriffen sind.

Doch manchmal imitiert das Leben die Fantasie, und so haben die BRICS-Staaten – die ursprünglichen vier Länder, zu denen nun noch Südafrika hinzugestoßen ist – eine eigene Gruppierung gebildet, die sich regelmäßig trifft und politische Initiativen anstößt. Das ehrgeizigste Projekt dieser Gruppe bis dato ist die Gründung einer Entwicklungsbank.

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