Dean Rohrer

Rückkehr der Braindrain-Panik

NEW YORK – Während man sich in den Industrieländern vor der überwiegend illegalen Einwanderung unqualifizierter Arbeitskräfte aus Entwicklungsländern fürchtet, treten in Afrika andere Bedenken vor allem im Hinblick auf die legale Abwanderung qualifizierter und - noch wichtiger, hochqualifizierter - Arbeitskräfte in die Industrieländer zu Tage. Bei dieser Abwanderung handelt es sich angeblich um einen neuen schädlichen „Braindrain“, wobei die reichen Länder die benötigten qualifizierten Kräfte aus den armen Ländern aktiv abwerben.

Diese Angst ist fehl am Platz. Zunächst müssen wir einmal zwischen „Bedarf“ und „Nachfrage“ unterscheiden. Ja, in vielen afrikanischen Ländern werden qualifizierte Arbeitskräfte benötigt. Aber aufgrund verschiedener Faktoren im Zusammenhang mit wirtschaftlicher Rückständigkeit sind diese Länder nicht in der Lage, diese Menschen aufzunehmen. 

In Indien herrschten in den 1950er und 1960er Jahren – also zu einer Zeit, da viele Akademiker emigrierten – erbärmliche Arbeitsbedingungen. Bürokraten entschieden, ob man zu Konferenzen ins Ausland fahren durfte. Institutsvorstände waren mit übermäßiger Macht ausgestattet. Kein Wunder also, dass viele von uns das Land verließen. Wir Hindus mögen ja an unendlich viele Wiedergeburten glauben, aber wie alle anderen auch, streben wir trotzdem in diesem Leben nach maximalem Wohlergehen.

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