Soudan: Le Problème Est Plus Profond

TEL AVIV – Le mandat d’arrêt délivré le mois dernier par la Cour pénale internationale à l’encontre du président du Soudan, Omar El-Béchir, a eu pour réplique immédiate l’ordre d’expulsion de la plupart des ONG du pays. Mais en accordant l’exclusivité de l’attention, et elle se justifie, à la région du Darfour, au nord-ouest du Soudan, on a éludé plus pressant encore: le soutien de la volonté de paix pour tout le Soudan. La première urgence aujourd’hui est la création d’un consensus international autour d’une stratégie pour une pleine mise en œuvre de l'Accord de paix global, (Comprehensive Peace Agreement, CPA) au Soudan.

Le CPA a mis fin à la guerre civile la plus longue que le continent africain ait connu, et qui a avait fait plus de deux millions de morts. Cet accord contient non seulement des points qui devraient préparer à l’autodétermination du Sud-Soudan, mais il donne tous les détails d’un processus de démocratisation pour le Soudan. Après tout, c’est le caractère répressif du régime de Khartoum qui est la cause des nombreux conflits qui ont déchiré le pays.

Si le gouvernement de Khartoum s’entête à saper le processus de réforme et à faire dérailler le référendum sur l’autonomie, promis aux régions du Sud pour janvier 2011, on risque sérieusement un retour à la guerre civile généralisée, avec des conséquences désastreuses pour les peuples du Soudan et la région dans son ensemble.

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