试验药物

绝大多数人在听说最近在评估医学研究和决定最佳疗法上严格运用证据的形式规则时都感到很惊讶。也许当他们听说医疗卫生政策并不运用同样的方法时同样会感到很惊讶。

所谓的“循证医学”对医学研究根据它们的质量推行一个经验证据等级系统。对动物的生理研究或者人类对实验室设置的回应在等级系统中级别较低。通过对比接受特定治疗的病人和不接受特定治疗的控制主体的结果来进行研究的对比研究级别并不高,但是可能会产生误导。

对于药物和手术程序令人信服的研究通常只会从随机试验中产生。在随即试验中,病人接受或不接受治疗是通过一个类似投硬币来决定的程序来确定的。实施良好的随机试验会对避免偏差现象注入额外的保障,包括使用安慰剂药物使调查者可以让病人及看护人不清楚到底是否正在接受积极治疗。

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