Terreur ou réforme dans le Grand Moyen-Orient

L'attentat brutal à la bombe de Madrid, qui a eu lieu la semaine dernière, fait partie de la vague de terreur qui a fait des victimes tant chez les Chrétiens que chez les Musulmans. Partout dans le monde, les débats tournent autour de la meilleure manière de combattre cette forme de terrorisme et de l'importance, dans ce contexte, de l'initiative du Grand Moyen-Orient que les Etats-Unis souhaitent faire approuver au G8 et à l'OTAN en juin.

Cet accord demeure incertain. A l'inverse des dirigeants européens tels que Joschka Fischer, le ministre allemand des Affaires étrangères, les Etats-Unis excluent le conflit israélo-arabe de l'initiative et souhaitent se concentrer uniquement sur les problèmes sociaux et économiques qui alimentent l'extrémisme et le terrorisme dans le monde islamiste.

La région a suscité l'intérêt bien avant les attaques sur les Etats-Unis en septembre 2001 ou les attentats à la bombe de Madrid. Déjà dans les années 1980 et 1990, l'Europe avait lancé le " processus Barcelone " afin de promouvoir la démocratie, la sécurité et le développement dans la région. A cette époque, comme maintenant, les craintes quant à l'instabilité régionale, la stagnation économique et le retard social abondaient. La perte grandissante de légitimité des régimes nationalistes arabes au profit des Islamistes radicaux suscitait une vive anxiété, craintes confirmées par la guerre civile sanglante en Algérie dans les années 1990.

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