Teror, nebo reforma na širším Blízkém východě

Brutální bombový útok v Madridu minulý týden je součástí vlny teroru, jíž padli za oběť křesťané i muslimové. Na všech frontách se nyní debata soustředí na nejlepší způsob, jak s touto formou terorismu bojovat, a na iniciativu pro širší Blízký východ, jejíž červnové schválení chtějí Spojené státy po zemích skupiny G8 a alianci NATO.

Dohoda je nejistá. Na rozdíl od čelních evropských představitelů, jako je německý ministr zahraničí Joschka Fischer, vyčleňují USA z této iniciativy izraelsko-arabský konflikt a chtějí se soustředit výhradně na sociální a ekonomické problémy, které jsou živnou půdou extremismu a terorismu v islámském světě.

Zájem o tento region však nezačal s útoky na USA v září 2001 ani s pumovými útoky v Madridu. Již v osmdesátých a devadesátých letech odstartovala Evropa takzvaný Barcelonský proces, který měl podporovat demokracii, bezpečnost a rozvoj v oblasti. Již tehdy stejně jako dnes panovaly značné obavy z regionální nestability, hospodářské stagnace a sociální zaostalosti. Strach vyvolávala rovněž možnost, že z rostoucí ztráty legitimity arabských nacionalistických režimů budou mít prospěch radikální islamisté - tyto obavy potvrdila krvavá občanská válka v Alžírsku v devadesátých letech minulého století.

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