Jak stimulovat rovnost

NEW YORK – Vzhledem ke stoupající nezaměstnanosti ve Spojených státech i dalších zemích OECD je klíčovým cílem politiků tvorba pracovních míst. V USA nedávno prezident Barack Obama navrhl zvýšení veřejných výdajů v příštích dvou letech o zhruba 600 miliard dolarů, což by vytvořilo další čtyři miliony pracovních míst. Obama se však také snaží zvrátit ostrý vzestup nerovnosti příjmů (která dnes dosahuje osmdesátiletého maxima). Je možné, aby vedoucí představitelé dělali obojí najednou?

Odpověď je jednoznačně kladná, avšak pouze v případě, že se zaměří spíše na vládní výdaje než na reformu daňových systémů. Toto poučení je ještě silnější v případě rozvinutých zemí, jako jsou Německo a Francie, které na veřejné programy vynakládají daleko vyšší procento HDP (v roce 2005 to bylo 35%, respektive 43%) než USA (pouhých 25%).

Americký daňový systém má překvapivě malou redistributivní údernost. Díky uplatnění takzvaného „souhrnného příjmu“ – skládajícího se z peněžních příjmů, celkových kapitálových zisků, příjmů z pronájmu domů s majitelem, nehotovostních vládních dávek a veřejné spotřeby – jsou daně z příjmu obecně progresivní.

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