平价住房新前沿

上海—提供平价、体面的住房已成为发展中和发达国家日益严峻的挑战。需求远远大于供给,这导致副作用——流动性、生产率和增长——正在(或将会)日益明显。幸运的是,在市政级别运用基于市场的办法可以大幅缩小平价住房空白。

从世界看,3.3亿中低收入城市家庭要么住在条件较差的住房中,要么因为无力承担住房支出而不得不削减医疗和教育等基本支出。到2025年,这一数字可能达到4.4亿家庭或16亿人(相当于世界城市人口的三分之一)——这其中还不包括世界最贫困人口,他们常常住在城市之外、城市街头或者寮屋中,属于人口普查中的“黑户”。

取代现有劣质住房、建造2025年所需要的新单位需要大约16万亿美元的投资——堪称天文数字。但有四个关键“杠杆”能让住房交付成本下降20—50%,从而让大部分城市收入相当于中位值50—80%的家庭住得起房(住房支出占总收入不超过30%)。

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