Dean Rohrer

Faut-il faire confiance à ses intuitions morales ?

Lorsqu’on condamne le comportement d’un personnage politique, d’une célébrité ou d’un ami, on finit souvent par faire appel à nos intuitions morales. « C’est juste que ça ne me semble pas correct ! » dit-on. Mais d’où viennent ces jugements intuitifs ? Doit-on se fier à ces guides de la morale ?

Dernièrement, des recherches inhabituelles ont soulevé de nouvelles questions sur le rôle des réponses intuitives du raisonnement éthique. Joshua Greene, diplômé de philosophie qui a récemment quitté l’université de Princeton pour celle de Harvard et effectue désormais des recherches en psychologie, a étudié les réactions d’individus face à un ensemble de dilemmes imaginaires. Dans le premier cas de figure, le sujet se trouve près d’une voie ferrée et remarque qu’un chariot vide se dirige vers un groupe de cinq personnes, qui seront tuées s’il continue sa course.

La seule chose à faire pour empêcher la mort des cinq personnes est d’aiguiller le chariot sur une autre voie, où il ne tuera qu’une seule personne. Quand on leur demande ce qu’ils feraient dans cette situation, la plupart des gens sont d’avis qu’il faut dévier le chariot pour sauver quatre vies.

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