Dean Rohrer

我们应该相信道德直觉么?

当我们谴责政客、名人或朋友的行为时,我们通常会倾向于使用我们的道德直觉。我们说:“我就觉得这是错的!”但这些直觉判断从何而来呢?它们是可靠的道德指南么?

最近,一些特别的研究提出了关于直觉反应在道德推理中的作用的新问题。乔舒亚·格林,一位刚从普林斯顿大学转到哈佛大学进行心理学研究的哲学硕士,研究了人们如何对一组想象中的困境做出反应。在一种困境中,你站在铁轨边,看到一辆空无一人的电车正驶向前方的五个人。如果电车继续在现有的轨道上行使,他们将会被撞死。

能避免造成五个人死亡的唯一办法就是加入一个道岔,将电车引导到旁边的轨道,如此一来它就只会撞死一个人。当被问到你在这样的情况下会如何做时,大多数人说应该扳道岔,这样可以拯救四条生命。

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