Mít možnost vybrat si potomka

MELBOURNE – Německý parlament v dubnu stanovil meze využívání genetické diagnostiky. Je nový německý zákon vzorem, který by ostatní země měly následovat ve snaze vypořádat se s etickými otazníky, jež přibývající znalosti lidské genetiky přinášejí?

Některá ustanovení německého zákona čerpají z obecně sdílených etických zásad úcty k autonomii a soukromí jedince. Nikoho nelze vyšetřit bez jeho souhlasu. Ani zaměstnavatelé, ani pojišťovny nesmějí genetické testy požadovat. Jednotlivci získávají jednak právo vědět – tedy být informován o výsledcích všech svých genetických testů – a jednak právo žít s neznalostí toho, co by o jejich budoucnosti mohl genetický test napovědět. Diskriminovat nebo stigmatizovat kohokoli na základě jeho genetických vlastností je zakázáno.

Navzdory dojmu vhodnosti, který tato ustanovení vyvolávají, mohou vyjít draho pro německé firmy. Bude-li pojišťovnám mimo Německo dovoleno požadovat genetické testy, kdežto těm německým to bude zakázáno, lidé, kteří budou vědět o své život zkracující genetické diagnóze, si u německé pojišťovny pořídí životní pojištění. Tyto pojišťovací ústavy pak zjistí, že oproti svým konkurentům častěji platí za předčasná úmrtí. Aby pokryly vyšší náklady, budou nuceny zvýšit pojistné, čímž ztratí konkurenční schopnost.

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