Vers une économie solidaire

DAVOS – Les principaux modèles économiques actuels reposent sur deux hypothèses fondamentales : premièrement, les humains sont essentiellement des acteurs égoïstes qui agissent rationnellement pour faire avancer leur propre objectif (c'est la notion d'homo economicus. Mais deuxièmement, comme la métaphore de la main invisible d'Adam Smith tend à le suggérer, un comportement autonome peut par inadvertance faire avancer le bien commun. Les deux hypothèses sont manifestement fausses.

Afin d'examiner des problèmes mondiaux urgents, comme le changement climatique et les inégalités, les modèles économiques prédominants doivent être repensés, en incorporant d'autres systèmes de motivation pouvant induire des comportements humains différents. Ces modèles réalistes, fondés sur des recherches empiriques en psychologie et en neurosciences, peuvent permettre aux sociétés de cultiver leur sentiment de compassion et d'établir un nouveau genre « d'économie solidaire » qui reflète mieux la nature de l'être humain.

Des études en neurosciences ont démontré que les humains peuvent être motivés par de la solidarité et par des systèmes d'affiliation tout aussi bien que par la puissance et la réussite ou encore par la consommation et le désir. Après tout, nous avons évolué pour être en mesure d'établir des relations stables, pour établir la confiance et pour prendre soin de nos enfants, ce qui nécessite une capacité de compassion et d'empathie. Une fois que nous reconnaissons que ces systèmes de motivation solidaires sont communs à tous les êtres humains (en effet, nous en partageons la plupart avec d'autres animaux), le monde commence à prendre un tout autre visage.

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