water tap Mohammed Abed/AFP/Getty Images

Política de desarrollo internacional basado en la ciencia

WASHINGTON – A simple vista, el pueblo al pie de las montañas Tian Shan se parece a otros pueblos vecinos. Los hombres están junto al canal con sus típicos sombreros de fieltro, los niños juegan en el río y las mujeres hornean naan, el pan kirguizio redondo y hojaldrado. Pero a diferencia de otras comunidades a lo largo del río Aspara, este pueblo se está ocupando de los problemas de seguridad del agua a los que se enfrentan, en lugar de ignorarlos.

Con el apoyo de un programa de desarrollo internacional basado en la ciencia, el consejo de administración del agua local, creado recientemente, ahora se reúne con un consejo similar del otro lado de la frontera internacional en Kazajstán. Juntos, los consejos solucionaron un problema que llevaba décadas y que afectaba la capacidad de alimentar a los niños, amenazaba la seguridad nacional e impedía el cumplimiento de un tratado de 1948 que determinaba cuánta agua podía usar cada población para sus cultivos.

Mediante la aplicación de soluciones locales para los problemas de desarrollo, estos consejos kirguizios de administración del agua construyeron canales de desvío e instalaron un medidor sencillo para monitorear la cantidad de agua utilizada por cada pueblo. Construidos con materiales disponibles en los pueblos, los nuevos canales se conectan al medidor y a computadoras, permitiendo que existan datos del flujo del agua en tiempo real que son compartidos en cada pueblo. Si bien la asistencia para el desarrollo ha concluido, estos administradores internacionales del agua ahora están mitigando el impacto del creciente flujo de agua como consecuencia del derretimiento de los glaciares, a la vez que intensifican la demanda de agricultura regional diseñando en conjunto pronósticos del uso del agua y plantando cultivos resistentes a las sequías.

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