Saddam Hussein ante la ley

¿Qué está en juego en el juicio a Saddam Hussein, cuyo comienzo está fijado para el 19 de octubre? Ocurre sólo cuatro días después del referendo sobre la constitución de Irak y ha sido saludado como un "momento constitucional" similar a los juicios al Rey Carlos X y Luis XVI, como un proceso judicial que se supone ayudará a dar impulso a la transición de Irak desde la tiranía a la democracia. ¿Será así?

Hasta ahora, todos los indicios sugieren que es poco probable que el juicio logre sus ambiciosas aspiraciones. Desde un comienzo, en el Irak de posguerra la justicia criminal pareció un constitucionalismo transplantado: juicios de ínfima duración, purgas radicales y elecciones arregladas. Lo más notable fue el apresuramiento posterior a la invasión para “desbaathificar” las instituciones existentes, lo que terminó vaciando a la mayoría de ellas.

La mezcla de responsabilidades individuales y colectivas asociada con los regímenes represivos crea un dilema sobre cómo tratar con las instituciones antiguas. Sin embargo, la purga en el ejército y la policía iraquíes meramente dejó al país en un vacío de seguridad interna. Para cuando se reconoció el error, el daño ya estaba hecho: se había sacrificado la seguridad del país sin necesidad alguna. Más aún, también se destruyeron las fuentes potenciales de legitimidad de la actual reforma constitucional de Irak, como por ejemplo el parlamento.

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