La ocupación rusa de Europa

Cuando Gazprom, el monopolio de gas natural de Rusia, suspendió el abastecimiento a Ucrania y Georgia en enero de 2006, la maniobra fue ampliamente percibida como una clara advertencia de la voluntad del Kremlin para utilizar sus recursos energéticos como medio de influencia política sobre Europa. Un año después, Rusia resaltó la importancia de ese acto al cortar el suministro de petróleo a Bielorrusia durante tres días, lo que tuvo repercusiones en los envíos hacia Europa Occidental.

A pesar de esas amenazas indirectas relacionadas con el abastecimiento, ha habido pocas señales de una política amplia y eficaz de la Unión Europea que reduzca la dependencia de la energía rusa. Las propuestas energéticas de la Comisión dadas a conocer en enero son un paso en la dirección correcta. Pero tendrán un efecto directo menor en las relaciones energéticas de Rusia con Europa porque no obligan a ese país a adoptar políticas de transporte e inversión en el sector energético más competitivas y transparentes.

Al contrario, los países europeos continúan celebrando transacciones bilaterales con Rusia, con poca consideración hacia los intereses comunes de la UE. Los miembros occidentales de la UE han mostrado escasa preocupación por las tácticas de presión rusas contra los nuevos miembros de Europa Central y Oriental, lo que pone en duda el grado de solidaridad de la UE en lo que concierne al abastecimiento energético. Desde que el Kremlin interrumpió el suministro de energía a los Estados bálticos en 1990, con la vana intención de aplastar sus movimientos de independencia, ha seguido utilizando la política del gasoducto contra países como Polonia, Letonia y Lituania –todos ellos nuevos Estados miembros de la UE. Para ellos, y para las nuevas democracias como Ucrania, Georgia y Moldova, el dominio energético ruso y sus consecuencias políticas siguen siendo una amenaza seria.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in;
  1. Television sets showing a news report on Xi Jinping's speech Anthony Wallace/Getty Images

    Empowering China’s New Miracle Workers

    China’s success in the next five years will depend largely on how well the government manages the tensions underlying its complex agenda. In particular, China’s leaders will need to balance a muscular Communist Party, setting standards and protecting the public interest, with an empowered market, driving the economy into the future.

  2. United States Supreme Court Hisham Ibrahim/Getty Images

    The Sovereignty that Really Matters

    The preference of some countries to isolate themselves within their borders is anachronistic and self-defeating, but it would be a serious mistake for others, fearing contagion, to respond by imposing strict isolation. Even in states that have succumbed to reductionist discourses, much of the population has not.

  3.  The price of Euro and US dollars Daniel Leal Olivas/Getty Images

    Resurrecting Creditor Adjustment

    When the Bretton Woods Agreement was hashed out in 1944, it was agreed that countries with current-account deficits should be able to limit temporarily purchases of goods from countries running surpluses. In the ensuing 73 years, the so-called "scarce-currency clause" has been largely forgotten; but it may be time to bring it back.

  4. Leaders of the Russian Revolution in Red Square Keystone France/Getty Images

    Trump’s Republican Collaborators

    Republican leaders have a choice: they can either continue to collaborate with President Donald Trump, thereby courting disaster, or they can renounce him, finally putting their country’s democracy ahead of loyalty to their party tribe. They are hardly the first politicians to face such a decision.

  5. Angela Merkel, Theresa May and Emmanuel Macron John Thys/Getty Images

    How Money Could Unblock the Brexit Talks

    With talks on the UK's withdrawal from the EU stalled, negotiators should shift to the temporary “transition” Prime Minister Theresa May officially requested last month. Above all, the negotiators should focus immediately on the British budget contributions that will be required to make an orderly transition possible.

  6. Ksenia Sobchak Mladlen Antonov/Getty Images

    Is Vladimir Putin Losing His Grip?

    In recent decades, as President Vladimir Putin has entrenched his authority, Russia has seemed to be moving backward socially and economically. But while the Kremlin knows that it must reverse this trajectory, genuine reform would be incompatible with the kleptocratic character of Putin’s regime.

  7. Right-wing parties hold conference Thomas Lohnes/Getty Images

    Rage Against the Elites

    • With the advantage of hindsight, four recent books bring to bear diverse perspectives on the West’s current populist moment. 
    • Taken together, they help us to understand what that moment is and how it arrived, while reminding us that history is contingent, not inevitable

    Global Bookmark

    Distinguished thinkers review the world’s most important new books on politics, economics, and international affairs.

  8. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin Bill Clark/Getty Images

    Don’t Bank on Bankruptcy for Banks

    As a part of their efforts to roll back the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act, congressional Republicans have approved a measure that would have courts, rather than regulators, oversee megabank bankruptcies. It is now up to the Trump administration to decide if it wants to set the stage for a repeat of the Lehman Brothers collapse in 2008.