La ocupación rusa de Europa

Cuando Gazprom, el monopolio de gas natural de Rusia, suspendió el abastecimiento a Ucrania y Georgia en enero de 2006, la maniobra fue ampliamente percibida como una clara advertencia de la voluntad del Kremlin para utilizar sus recursos energéticos como medio de influencia política sobre Europa. Un año después, Rusia resaltó la importancia de ese acto al cortar el suministro de petróleo a Bielorrusia durante tres días, lo que tuvo repercusiones en los envíos hacia Europa Occidental.

A pesar de esas amenazas indirectas relacionadas con el abastecimiento, ha habido pocas señales de una política amplia y eficaz de la Unión Europea que reduzca la dependencia de la energía rusa. Las propuestas energéticas de la Comisión dadas a conocer en enero son un paso en la dirección correcta. Pero tendrán un efecto directo menor en las relaciones energéticas de Rusia con Europa porque no obligan a ese país a adoptar políticas de transporte e inversión en el sector energético más competitivas y transparentes.

Al contrario, los países europeos continúan celebrando transacciones bilaterales con Rusia, con poca consideración hacia los intereses comunes de la UE. Los miembros occidentales de la UE han mostrado escasa preocupación por las tácticas de presión rusas contra los nuevos miembros de Europa Central y Oriental, lo que pone en duda el grado de solidaridad de la UE en lo que concierne al abastecimiento energético. Desde que el Kremlin interrumpió el suministro de energía a los Estados bálticos en 1990, con la vana intención de aplastar sus movimientos de independencia, ha seguido utilizando la política del gasoducto contra países como Polonia, Letonia y Lituania –todos ellos nuevos Estados miembros de la UE. Para ellos, y para las nuevas democracias como Ucrania, Georgia y Moldova, el dominio energético ruso y sus consecuencias políticas siguen siendo una amenaza seria.

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