Russlands mehrdeutiges mohammedanisches Erbe

Bei seinem jüngsten Besuch in Brüssel stieß Russlands Präsident Vladimir Putin die führenden europäischen Politiker ebenso wie die Journalisten mit seiner Bemerkungen über die islamische Absicht, ein globales Kalifat zu errichten, vor den Kopf. Aufregend an Putins Rede war, dass er Russlands brutalen Krieg gegen die Tschetschenen als Beitrag seines Landes zum internationalen Krieg gegen den islamischen Terrorismus vorstellte. Aber ist er das wirklich?

Russlands Versuche, den Aufstand der Tschetschenen zu brechen, sind nur ein weiteres blutiges Kapitel in der zweihundertjährigen russischen Kolonialpolitik, die mit der Unterwerfung der kaukasischen Bergvölker begann. Dazu wurde damals schon ein grausamer Krieg geführt, der sich über dreißig Jahre hinzog. Dieser Krieg flammte immer wieder bis in die frühen Jahre der sowjetische Ära auf. 1944 wurde die ganze Bevölkerung Tschetscheniens gewaltsam nach Zentralasien umgesiedelt.

Fünfzig Jahre später griff Präsident Yeltsin diesen Krieg wieder auf, als die Tschetschenen erneut ihre Unabhängigkeit einforderten. Aus historischer Perspektive ist es daher angemessener, den heutigen Krieg gegen die Tschetschenen mit den anderen großen Kriegen aus der Zeit der Entkolonialisierung zu vergleichen, insbesondere mit dem blutigen Krieg Frankreichs gegen Algerien, statt darin einen "Kampf der Kulturen" oder den Krieg gegen den Terrorismus erkennen zu wollen.

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