处理灾难和危机的规则

纽约--几年前,我的女儿从高处摔下后陷于昏迷。两个护士进入医院病房准备输血。一个拿着一袋血,而另一个则手持我女儿的医疗档案。第一个读出了袋子上文字:“A型血”,而另一个从档案中读到:“Alexa Holmes,A型血”。然后她们继续进行。她们根据说明转换用品和角色,第一个护士读档案的内容:“Alexa Holmes,A型血”,第二个读袋子上的文字:“A型血”。

为什么训练有素的专业人员在奋力应付快速展开的紧急情况的时候要遵守事先制定好的规则呢?主要原因是在危机时刻,主要由于慌乱,人们会犯下可以预计但是却可以避免的错误。经过一段时间,人们制定了详细的规则应付这样令人疑惑的情况,从而鼓励冷静并且把可以避免的错误风险降低到最低。

在新的威胁下灵活处理的价值并不意味着应当一股脑儿地抛弃现有的规则,这一点几乎为世人皆知。但是,布什政府外交政策的顽固支持者们还是基本上没有注意到这一点。即使今天,主要的共和党总统候选人表示,在与基地组织的斗争中,法治是一个无法承受的奢侈品。他们宣称,如果完全遵守宪法主义和法定程序会降低政府在制定办法防止恐怖主义攻击上的“灵活性”。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/0FSPujD/zh;
  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now