处理灾难和危机的规则

纽约--几年前,我的女儿从高处摔下后陷于昏迷。两个护士进入医院病房准备输血。一个拿着一袋血,而另一个则手持我女儿的医疗档案。第一个读出了袋子上文字:“A型血”,而另一个从档案中读到:“Alexa Holmes,A型血”。然后她们继续进行。她们根据说明转换用品和角色,第一个护士读档案的内容:“Alexa Holmes,A型血”,第二个读袋子上的文字:“A型血”。

为什么训练有素的专业人员在奋力应付快速展开的紧急情况的时候要遵守事先制定好的规则呢?主要原因是在危机时刻,主要由于慌乱,人们会犯下可以预计但是却可以避免的错误。经过一段时间,人们制定了详细的规则应付这样令人疑惑的情况,从而鼓励冷静并且把可以避免的错误风险降低到最低。

在新的威胁下灵活处理的价值并不意味着应当一股脑儿地抛弃现有的规则,这一点几乎为世人皆知。但是,布什政府外交政策的顽固支持者们还是基本上没有注意到这一点。即使今天,主要的共和党总统候选人表示,在与基地组织的斗争中,法治是一个无法承受的奢侈品。他们宣称,如果完全遵守宪法主义和法定程序会降低政府在制定办法防止恐怖主义攻击上的“灵活性”。

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