Rohingya refugees flood into Bangladesh Paula Bronstein/Getty Images

罗兴亚的警示

巴黎——就像在现实中常常发生的那样,是一位艺术家发出了警示。他的名字是巴贝特·施罗德,他所发出的警示是一部清醒而美轮美奂的电影《庄严的W》,一部有关缅甸佛教僧侣阿信·维拉图(Ashin Wirathu)的人物传记。维拉图代表着被广泛视为和平、友爱与和谐榜样的宗教的另外一副面孔。而在他种族主义的面孔背后,佛教对暴力的崇尚简直令人窒息。

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在2017年戛纳电影节上映后,施罗德的电影吸引了不少媒体关注。而后接受电视采访时,施罗德警告缅甸若开邦的穆斯林少数族裔罗兴亚人正处在维拉图嗜血的“969运动”的视线之中。

这丝毫没有什么值得大惊小怪。多达百万罗兴亚男男女女在自己的国家沦为无国籍人。由于被剥夺了投票权、政治代表权和接受医疗和教育的机会,只要独裁统治缅甸半个世纪的军队厌倦了让他们自生自灭,他们就会面临大屠杀的命运。

罗兴亚人所遭受的独一无二的蓄意残酷虐待令人震惊。他们既毫无身份(在一个有135个其他“民族种族”的如此痴迷于种族的国家却从未得到过正式承认,使得他们在事实上成为那个多出来的民族)但同时又受到身份的节制(法律规定禁止他们迁徙、工作或与村外的人结婚,并且家庭规模也受到限制)。

因此,我们正面临那个似乎不期而遇的时刻,但现在,我们应当能够听到这是种族灭绝加速的脉搏在跳动。

近40万人现在已经从非人境遇变成被捕猎的动物,他们被烟从之前遭囚禁的村庄中熏出来,被赶到马路上,被开枪打死或者遭受酷刑,并且遭受群体强奸的厄运。那些幸存下来的人正抵达邻国孟加拉边境地区的临时营地,而孟加拉作为世界最贫困的国家之一,尽管乐于相助,但却缺乏为大量难民提供庇护所需的资源。

联合国克服了其自身一贯的怯懦,汲取了剩余的道德资本来谴责这些罪行,并宣布全世界最受迫害的少数族裔为罗兴亚人。对那些愿意看到和记住的人而言,若开邦的状况令人回忆起20世纪90年代前南斯拉夫发生的种族清洗,以及同一个十年卢旺达爆发的更加残酷的屠杀。

但许多人却故意视而不见。因为罗兴亚人的迫害者通过限制记者和摄影师采访,否认了他们受害者的身份,而且因为罗兴亚人在身为穆斯林的糟糕时代身为穆斯林,几乎整个世界都对他们的境遇视而不见。

面对预言中的这场悲剧,世界应当思考我已故的朋友哲学家让·弗朗索瓦·雷维所说过的从未用过的知识和对无知的热情。

我们应当诅咒包括我在内的许多人所拥有的天真,正是这种天真让我们将“仰光之女”昂山素季奉为神圣,昂山素季本人就是一部影片的主角,这部电影充满理想化色彩,但事后看起来却骇人听闻。自从去年成为缅甸事实上的领导人之后,素季就彻底抛弃了罗兴亚人

素季似乎对1991年赢得的诺贝尔和平奖当之无愧,当时她似乎是纳尔逊·曼德拉、圣雄甘地和达赖喇嘛的再生。但从她庄严向世界保证她在实兑没有看到任何问题的那一刻起,她向世界宣告若开邦其他地区一切平静,而且一系列令人震惊的相反报道不过是“虚假信息的冰山一角”,她的诺贝尔奖就成了不在现场的证明。

罗兴亚人是现存最赤裸裸的群体:他们被剥夺了一切(包括死亡的权利)、被排斥在人类社会之外并被剥夺了一切人权。汉娜·阿伦特曾预测他们会成为人类未来的不变因素,掏空人权宣言谴责的活生生(或活死人般)的见证。

但在这一切发生之前,我要许个愿。明天,一位非常不同的女性,孟加拉国总理谢赫·哈西娜将在联合国露面,呼吁对罗兴亚危机作出国际反应。我与哈西娜相识已近50年,我有很多机会欣赏不仅她在精神上的高贵,还有她致力于温和开明的伊斯兰教,充分尊重男性和女性人权的深刻而不可动摇的决心。

我希望人类的良知将在纽约伴随她的演讲,而且,因为世界听到了她的呼吁,她所提出的警示将不会产生丧钟般的可怕共鸣。

http://prosyn.org/mdg3PDw/zh;

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