A Verdadeira Matéria-Prima da Riqueza

TIRANA – Os países pobres exportam matérias-primas como o cacau, o minério de ferro, e os diamantes em bruto. Os países ricos exportam – muitas vezes para os mesmos países pobres – produtos mais complexos como chocolate, automóveis, e jóias. Se os países pobres quiserem tornar-se ricos, deverão deixar de exportar os seus recursos na sua forma bruta e concentrar-se em adicionar-lhes valor. De outro modo, os países ricos ficarão com a parte de leão do valor e com todos os bons empregos.

Os países pobres poderiam seguir o exemplo da África do Sul e do Botswana e usar a sua riqueza natural para impor a industrialização, restringindo a exportação de minérios na sua forma bruta (uma política conhecida localmente por “beneficiação”). Mas deveriam fazê-lo?

Algumas ideias são piores que erradas: são castradoras, porque interpretam o mundo de um modo que dá enfase a assuntos secundários – digamos, a disponibilidade de matérias-primas – e cega as sociedades às oportunidades mais prometedoras que poderão ser encontradas noutros sectores.

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