财富的真正原材料

地拉那—穷国出口可可、铁矿石和生钻石等原材料。富国出口——目的地常常就是这些穷国——巧克力、汽车和珠宝等更复杂的产品。如果穷国想要变富,它们就应该停止出口原始形式的资源,集中精力提高它们的附加值。否则,附加值的大头和所有优渥工作都会被富国攫走。

穷国可以效仿南非博茨瓦纳,通过限制出口原始形式的原材料(这一政策在当地被称为“矿物增效”(beneficiation))利用自然财富强行推动工业化。但它们应该这样做吗?

一些观点比错误更加可怕:它们让你失去雄风,因为它们总是强调次要问题——如是否可以获得原材料——而让社会无法看到存在于别处的良机。

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