调整欧洲的法德引擎

柏林——法国下月开始的欧盟主席任期成功与否将在很大程度上取决于法德合作能否重新找回活力。在那个似乎早已过去的年代里,欧洲的共同计划成为常态,而法德提案通常也无一例外地含有能够为整个欧洲所接受的妥协措施。1992年的《马斯特里赫特条约》也许是法德创造力的最后一次杰作。

但接下来这两个国家就变得日益疏远。法国从未激情满怀地参与过欧盟东扩的活动,而欧元的创立则导致了1993-1999年法德局势严重紧张。1996年法国放弃征兵并积极推动核试验的决策在改善关系方面收效甚微。雅克·希拉克总统任期的最后阶段给我们留下的大多是僵局,而两国之间的僵持状态在2005年5月法国投票否决欧盟宪法条约草案后达到了高潮。

勿庸置疑,法德引擎再也无法像从前那样高效运转。这两个国家傲慢的行为举止——比如批评东欧的税收制度,而与此同时自己却未能遵守《欧盟稳定与增长公约》——让其他欧盟国家,特别是新成员国胆战心惊。同样令人寒心的还有它们傲慢地宣称只有自己才真正理解“政治欧洲”的含义,因此它们有权越俎代庖替别人做出决定——就像2002年10月签订农业协议那样——那份协议把其他国家排除在外,同意该协议的仅限于法德两个国家。

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