Lucha contra la pobreza 2.0

ROMA – Los dirigentes mundiales han pregonado el éxito aparente de la consecución en 2010 –mucho antes del plazo de 2015– del objetivo de desarrollo del Milenio de reducir a la mitad la proporción de personas que estaban viviendo por debajo del umbral de la pobreza en 1990, pero, en medio de una pobreza duradera, una desigualdad en aumento y un crecimiento anémico en muchos países en desarrollo, el éxito de las políticas y los programas del pasado contra la pobreza parece dudoso.

En realidad, aparte del Asia oriental y pese a varios ligeros aumentos del crecimiento económico, expansión sostenida en algunos países en desarrollo grandes y compromisos públicos por parte de la comunidad internacional para con la Declaración del Milenio de 2000, que propició la formulación de los objetivos de desarrollo del Milenio, los avances han sido modestos y la situación ha empeorado en algunos países y regiones,

Esa ejecutoria irregular pone en entredicho la eficacia de las políticas tradicionales de reducción de la pobreza, con frecuencia identificadas con el Consenso de Washington, que transformó la concepción de la pobreza en el decenio de 1980. Las reformas del Consenso de Washington –incluidas la estabilización macroeconómica (definida como una inflación baja, de una sola cifra) y la liberalización de los mercados– habían de reducir la pobreza acelerando el crecimiento económico.

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