Anti-Armut 2.0

ROM – Weltweit haben sich Politiker damit gebrüstet, das Millenium-Entwicklungsziel der Halbierung des Anteils der Menschen, die 1990 unter der Armutsgrenze lebten, bereits 2010 erreicht zu haben – deutlich vor 2015, dem ursprünglichen Ziel. Aber angesichts anhaltender Armut, wachsender Ungleichheit und schwachen Wachstums in vielen Entwicklungsländern erscheint der Erfolg vergangener Maßnahmen und Programme gegen Armut zweifelhaft.

Tatsächlich waren die Fortschritte außerhalb von Asien nur mäßig, und in manchen Ländern und Regionen hat sich die Lage verschlimmert – trotz einiger Wachstumsprogramme, fortgesetzter Expansion in einigen großen Schwellenländern und öffentlicher Bekenntnisse der internationalen Gemeinschaft zur Millenium-Erklärung von 2000, die zu den Millenium-Entwicklungszielen führte.

Dieses gemischte Ergebnis stellt die Wirksamkeit konventioneller Maßnahmen zur Armutsreduzierung in Frage, die oft mit dem Washington-Konsens in Verbindung gebracht werden, der in den 1980ern den Diskurs über die Armut verändert hatte. Die mit dem Konsens einhergehenden Reformen – darunter makroökonomische Stabilisierung (definiert als Inflation im niedrigen einstelligen Bereich) und Marktliberalisierung – sollten die Armut durch Beschleunigung des Wirtschaftswachstums reduzieren.

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