Wohnungen oder Lebensraum

CAMBRIDGE, MASS. – Von dem einflussreichen Managementguru Peter Drucker stammen die bekannten Worte: „Was nicht gemessen wird, wird nicht gemacht.“ Vielleicht hätte er hinzufügen sollen: Was schlecht gemessen wird, wird schlecht gemacht.

Man betrachte einmal die Wohnungssituation von Menschen mit niedrigem Einkommen. Die meisten Entwicklungsländer und viele reiche Länder definieren ihr Wohnungsdefizit anhand der Zahl der Familien, die in als gesellschaftlich inakzeptabel geltenden Wohnungen leben. Doch was als inakzeptabel gilt, unterscheidet sich von Land zu Land deutlich. Leitungswasser, Kanalisation und ein Stromanschluss gelten auf dem amerikanischen Doppelkontinent als unverzichtbar, nicht aber in Indien.

Das Problem ist, dass Menschen keine Wohnungen brauchen, sondern einen Lebensraum. Eine Wohnung ist ein Objekt; ein Lebensraum ist ein Knoten inmitten einer Vielzahl einander überlappender Netze – physischer (Strom, Wasser und Kanalisation, Straßen), wirtschaftlicher (Nahverkehr, Arbeitsmärkte, Vertrieb und Einzelhandel, Unterhaltung) und gesellschaftlicher (Bildung, Gesundheit, Sicherheit, Familie, Freunde). Es ist die Fähigkeit zur Verbindung mit all diesen Netzen, die einen Lebensraum wertvoll macht.

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