新的社会契约

巴黎—如今,放眼全球,持久的失业、技能失配和退休框架已成为财政政策的核心,也是动不动就激烈上演的围绕财政政策的政治争论的核心。发达国家面临着迫在眉睫的“老龄化”问题,但大部分新兴国家也处于人口结构转型中,不出二三十年便将步入与发达经济体想死的年龄结构(即倒金字塔结构)。事实上,中国达到这一步会早得多。

诸多问题影响着就业。2008年开始的全球金融危机的后果仍在欧洲、美国和日本起着主要作用。但更长期的结构问题也在压抑着劳动力市场。

最重要的是,全球化导致了比较优势的持续变化,由于新活动所创造的就业不足以补偿旧活动损失的就业,于是形成了严重的调整问题。无论如何,大部分新岗位需要不同的技能,这意味着因行业衰落而失业的工人难以找到新工作。

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