L’après Uribe

BUENOS AIRES – L’élection présidentielle colombienne qui doit se clore fin mai est, de nombreux points de vue, une élection atypique. En dépit de pressions considérables, la Cour constitutionnelle a contrecarré en mars l’intention d’Alvaro Uribe de se présenter une troisième fois consécutive et maintenu la limitation à deux mandats constitutionnels. L’absence d’Uribe conduit à un déblocage de l’élection qui fait sensation.

Uribe n’est plus dorénavant qu’un président en fin de mandat, mais son influence est encore décisive. Il fait tout son possible pour que la politique sécuritaire, dont il a fait le principal enjeu de sa présidence, reste au centre de la bataille électorale. Il cherche également à réveiller les tensions avec le Venezuela limitrophe, et il compte sur son dauphin, l’ancien ministre de la Défense Juan Manuel Santos, pour unifier les forces de droite du pays, afin d’assurer la survivance de sa politique.

Mais la Colombie ne semble pas vouloir de la continuation de cet état des choses à tous prix; elle semble au contraire se prononcer pour un remaniement centriste de la politique qu’Uribe a mise en place au cours de la dernière décennie. L’histoire contemporaine de la Colombie n’est pas coutumière de ce type de rénovation. L’alliance du candidat Antanas Mockus et du candidat à la vice-présidence Sergio Fajardo offre l’occasion d’un vrai changement de cap, parce qu’aucun de ces deux hommes ne vient du milieu politique libéral-conservateur, aujourd’hui affaibli. Ayant tous deux un doctorat en mathématiques, ils viennent l’un et l’autre du monde académique.

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