Jak měřit příští globální rozvojové cíle

KODAŇ – Na počátku jednadvacátého století dalo mezinárodní společenství několik chytrých a jednoduchých slibů v podobě takzvaných Rozvojových cílů tisíciletí (MDG). Svět měl do roku 2015 snížit počet lidí trpících hladem a žijících v extrémní chudobě na polovinu, zajistit všem lidem základní vzdělání a dramaticky redukovat dětskou úmrtnost. Úspěchů bylo mnoho, ačkoliv ne všechny rozvojové cíle se podaří splnit.

Nesplněný možná zůstane například cíl snížit na polovinu počet lidí trpících hladem – i když to bude jen těsně. V roce 1991 trpělo podvýživou 23,4% všech lidí v rozvojovém světě a více než miliarda lidí chodila spát hladová. Do roku 2013 klesl tento podíl na 13,5%. Ačkoliv v rozvojovém světě žilo o 1,7 miliardy lidí více než v roce 1991, hladem jich trpělo o 209 milionů méně. Během posledních 22 let se světu podařilo dostatečně nasytit téměř o dvě miliardy lidí více – to je nezanedbatelný úspěch.

Během příštího roku se sejdou zástupci vlád 193 zemí světa, aby stanovili nové globální cíle, které bude třeba splnit do roku 2030. Jedná se o největší příležitost této generace přetavit vysoké aspirace do konkrétních cílů. Abychom však vybrali cíle, které vykonají nejvíce dobrého, musíme se poučit ze současných zkušeností.

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