From the HBO mini-series Burning Bush From the HBO mini-series Burning Bush

哀悼波兰的自焚者

华沙——10月19日下午晚些时候,一名54岁的男子在华沙科学文化宫外散发了几十份写给波兰民众的公开信。而后他点火自焚。

信的内容非常理性,他仔细历数并谴责了波兰政府所采取的行动,按照波兰和国际法院的说法,这些行动相当于破坏法治和自由民主。

该信件指责由法律与正义党(PiS)所控制的政府限制公民自由并破坏司法体系。这封信特别谴责法律与正义党对移民、女性、同性恋、穆斯林和其他少数群体的歧视,并谴责他们因为支持煤炭能源、狩猎和在比亚沃维耶扎森林伐木而对环境造成的破坏。

从更广义的角度,这封信还谴责那些“担任国家最高公职者”将政府决策权让渡给法律与正义党主席雅罗斯瓦夫·卡钦斯基,而后者则是没有担任任何公职的;这封信还谴责他们将公共电视和广播电台转化为法律与正义党的“宣传机构”。此外,这封信还哀叹法律与正义党政府使波兰成为国际舞台上的被“嘲笑对象”。

公开信显示这名男性的自我牺牲是要迫使“法律与正义党主席和在该党担任要职的官员公开承认他们对我的死直接负责,他们的手上沾染了我的鲜血。”这名男子希望他的抗议之举会影响法律与正义党的支持者——最新民调结果显示这些人占波兰总人口的47%——他们不会希望他们所支持政策的执行最终损害波兰的法治与民主。

但这封信同时恳求该党反对者——16%的波兰人支持最大反对党——“牢记法律与正义党选民是我们的母亲、兄弟、邻居、朋友和同事。”因此,他们不应遭到诋毁,而是应当提醒他们注意“民主规则”。这封信最后呼吁所有波兰人“清醒过来”,在政府对国家造成不可挽回的损害之前改变政府。

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到目前为止,我们只知道这封信的作者名叫皮奥特,而且他现在生命垂危,全身60%的面积都被烧伤。但尽管他籍籍无名,他的想法却在整个波兰引起反响。

在给媒体的另外一封信中,皮奥特警告法律与正义党会竭尽全力削弱其抗议行为的影响。“他们的首要攻击目标,”他预测,就是指出他患有抑郁症。“我是你们所说的精神病患者,”他写道。“但波兰像我一样的人有几百万,而且他们多多少少行为都比较正常。”皮奥特的请求非常明确:请不要混淆抑郁症和疯狂。

波兰人对皮奥特的自焚事件反应不一。起初,媒体表现十分沉默,只有少数反对派权威人士公开表态法律与正义党应对此负责。在回应上述批评时,内政部长布瓦什查克就像皮奥特所预测的那样试图将皮奥特的行为归结于他的抑郁症。布瓦什查克而后称皮奥特是“反对派全面宣传攻势的受害者,反对派声称他们正在国内街道和国外反对波兰政府。”

与此同时,著名波兰制片人阿格涅丝卡·霍兰德发表强烈抗议,反对自由媒体将皮奥特的抗议归结为精神病的结果。这是一种“极端道德懒惰的表现”,她在Oko.press写道,“才会用抑郁症、精神病及与之相关的结束生命的愿望来解释如此极端的公众绝望和自我牺牲。”

霍兰德在这个问题上有权威话语权。他是亨利克·霍兰德的女儿,后者是1961年自杀的反共持不同政见者。2013年,她制作了一部HBO系列短片,讲述捷克学生扬·帕拉赫1969年在瓦茨拉夫广场的自焚活动。

我个人认为,皮奥特在公开信中所表达的内容应当引起波兰民众的关注。即使他的行为的确源于某种个人危机,但也不能被当做非理性行为而被完全抹杀掉。归根结底,我们不可能比他本人更了解他的企图。他公开宣称的动机和意见应当得到认真对待和探讨。

但皮奥特的行为不应被视为波兰政治斗争中的一场演出,也不应被随意当做反对法律与正义党或其他任何人的理由。世界卫生组织曾在自杀行为报导指南中指出,“不应以无法解释或者简单粗暴的方式对自杀行为进行报道。”此外,自杀受害者不应被奉为“烈士或成为公众追捧的对象”,以免其他“易受影响者”认为“自杀行为受到其所在社会的尊重”。

在波兰本月见证的绝望行为发生后,哀悼受害者应当成为首要的目标。其次是应当以某种方式引导许多人感受到的绝望,让这种绝望成为希望的先导。

http://prosyn.org/UZBjU1r/zh;

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