La casa dividida de Palestina

El llamamiento del Presidente George W. Bush en pro de una nueva conferencia de paz a Israel, Palestina y los Estados vecinos que respaldan una solución consistente en la existencia de dos Estados es una noticia digna de beneplácito, aunque muy tardía, pero los intentos de reanudación del proceso de paz afrontan ahora una realidad radicalmente nueva: ahora hay que contar en el proceso con dos entidades palestinas mutuamente hostiles en la Gaza gobernada por Hamas y la Ribera Occidental, dirigida por Al Fatah.

El enfrentamiento Hamas-Al Fatah señala un cambio espectacular en la política palestina, cuyas prioridades máximas hasta ahora han sido el fin de la ocupación israelí y la creación de un estado independiente. Además, complica enormemente las negociaciones de paz, para las cuales los palestinos y el Cuarteto (los Estados Unidos, la Unión Europea, las Naciones Unidas y Rusia) partieron de la premisa del mantenimiento de la Franja de Gaza y la Ribera Occidental como una sola unidad territorial.

Resulta irónico que esos territorios resultaran reunidos por la victoria de Israel en la guerra de 1967, después de 19 años de separación. Antes, Egipto había gobernado Gaza, mientras que Jordania se anexionó la Ribera Occidental. Bajo la ocupación israelí y después con la creación de la Autoridad Palestina (AP) en 1994, esos territorios permanecieron separados geográficamente, pero no políticamente. La toma del poder por Hamas en Gaza ha puesto fin –al menos de momento– a esa unificación política.

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