Разделенный дом Палестины

Призыв президента Джорджа Буша к новым мирным переговорам между Израилем, Палестиной и соседними государствами, которые помогут найти решение конфликта между двумя странами, является очень долгожданным, если уже даже не запоздалым, прогрессом в этом вопросе. Но попыткам повторно начать мирный процесс теперь противостоит абсолютно новая действительность: в этот процесс теперь должны быть включены два враждебных палестинских образования - подконтрольный Хамасу Сектор Газа и управляемый Фатхом Западный берег.

Столкновение Хамаса и Фатха отражает существенные изменения в палестинской политике, главным приоритетом которой до сих пор был конец израильской оккупации и учреждение независимого государства. Это также очень сильно усложняет процесс мирных переговоров, в котором и палестинцы, и «Ближневосточный квартет» (США, Европейский союз, ООН и Россия) представляли Сектора Газа и Западный берег в качестве единой территориальной единицы.

Как это ни странно, но эти территории были воссоединены после 19 летней сепарации с победой Израиля в войне 1967 года. До этого в Секторе Газа господствовал Египет, в то время как Западный берег был включен в состав Иордании. Под израильской оккупацией, а затем с учреждением Палестинской автономии (ПА) в 1994 году, территории оставались разделенными географически, но не политически. Победа Хамаса в Секторе Газа, по крайней мере, на время положила конец этому политическому объединению.

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