Palestinská rozdělená domácnost

Volání amerického prezidenta George W. Bushe po nové mírové konferenci pro Izrael, Palestinu a sousední země, které podporují řešení založené na existenci dvou států, je vítaným, byť velmi opožděným vývojem. Úsilí o opětovné nastartování mírového procesu se však nyní střetává s nepříjemnou novou realitou: tento proces nyní musí zohlednit existenci dvou vzájemně znesvářených palestinských entit v Hamásem vedené Gaze a na Fatáhem vedeném západním břehu Jordánu.

Roztržka mezi Hamásem a Fatáhem odráží dramatický posun v palestinské politice, jejímiž nejvyššími prioritami byly až do nynějška ukončení izraelské okupace a založení nezávislého státu. Zároveň strašlivě komplikuje mírová vyjednávání, která „blízkovýchodní kvartet“ (Spojené státy, Evropská unie, Organizace spojených národů a Rusko) podmínil udržením pásma Gazy a západního břehu Jordánu jakožto jediné územní jednotky.

Tato území po 19 letech odloučení paradoxně znovu sjednotilo vítězství Izraele ve válce v roce 1967. Předtím vládl v Gaze Egypt, zatímco západní břeh anektovalo Jordánsko. Během izraelské okupace a poté i po založení Palestinské samosprávy (PA) v roce 1994 zůstala tato území oddělena geograficky, nikoliv však politicky. Převzetí moci Hamásem v Gaze toto politické sjednocování – přinejmenším prozatím – ukončilo.

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