液压裂解恐惧症

坎布里奇——出乎所有人预料,美国的二氧化碳大气排放于2007年达到顶峰后,到2012年下降12%,重新回到1995年的排放水平。主要原因一言以蔽之就是“液压裂解技术”。换句话说是利用水平钻井和液压裂解技术提取页岩气。

没有其他原因能够给出合理的解释。与欧盟不同,美国从未批准《京都议定书》,该《议定书》要求参与国承诺到2012年实现二氧化碳排放在1990年基础上缩减5%的水平。美国的持续性减排也不是经济活动放缓的副产物:虽然美国经济和碳排放在2007年下半年同时达到顶峰,但经济衰退已于2009年6月结束,其后的GDP增长尽管不尽如人意,但一直远高于欧洲的水平。然而美国的碳排放却持续下降,而欧盟碳排放则在2009年后再次回升

页岩气一直驱动美国碳排放下降几乎是毋庸置疑的事实。就在10年前,天然气行业还毫不犹豫地认定国内产量已经达到极限,因此在终端投入了大笔资金用于进口液化天然气(LNG)。但液压裂解技术却实现了供应快速增长,以致于这些设施现在转而用于出口液化天然气。

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