A homeless encampment made of tents and tarps lines the Santa Ana ROBYN BECK/AFP/Getty Images

投资于减贫

伯克利—经美国总统特朗普在去年12月签署成为法律的税收立法将大大提高不平等性和联邦预算赤字。但它——以及2月实施的预算立法——也隐含了两个帮助州和地方政府解决美国后进群体的需要的计划。

新税法给了私人投资慷慨的激励投资于困难城市和农村地区;而预算方案中的一条条款将建立竞争性拨款计划帮助各州为“成功后支付”合同提供资金。这两个概念都源自克林顿和奥巴马总统的民主党政府;但它们能够为州和地方政府赋权(依靠公私合作实现)并鼓励严格的影响评估,这吸引了国会共和党的支持。

税法中鼓励私人投资于困难地区的条款主要是建立“机会区”(Opportunity Zones,OZ,这个词30多年前由纽约州州长马里奥·库默(Mario Cuomo)首次提出)。OZ计划授予美国州长权力指定最多25%的低收入人口普查区(个体贫困率不小于20%,中位家庭收入低于州或领地平均水平的80%)为OZ。

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