La confrontation des deux gauches d'Amérique latine

On peut interpréter de deux manières les récentes élections qui ont eu lieu en Amérique latine. La première interprétation est la plus évidente : c'est la fin du supposé virage à gauche de toute la région. Au cours des semaines qui viennent de s'écouler, Ollanta Humala, un hypernationaliste clone du président Hugo Chavez du Vénézuéla, a essuyé une défaite au Pérou ; Alvaro Uribe, un conservateur, l'a emporté haut la main en Colombie avec 62% des suffrages et au Mexique Andrés Manuel Lopez Obrador est maintenant donné perdant pour l'élection présidentielle du 2 juillet. Ce tableau semble démentir un basculement à gauche de l'Amérique latine.

Mais il y a une deuxième interprétation possible. Certes, le président Uribe a été réélu, mais la grande surprise en Colombie a été la fin du système à deux grands partis dominants en place depuis des décennies et l'apparition sur le devant de la scène du Polo Democrático de gauche, la seconde formation politique du pays.

Quant à Alan Garcia qui a remporté la présidence du Pérou, il ne vient pas d'un parti de la gauche dure qui a finalement émergé (comme Lula da Silva au Brésil, Michelle Bachelet au Chili et Tabaré Vázquez en Uruguay). Son parti, l'APRA, créé par Victor Raul Haya de la Torre en 1924, est l'un des partis populistes les plus anciens et les plus anachroniques de la région.

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