Les vieux problèmes de la nouvelle Europe

Les émeutes de Budapest, provoquées par un enregistrement dans lequel on entend le Premier ministre Ferenc Gyurcsany reconnaître que son gouvernement a menti pendant un an sur l'état catastrophique des finances du pays, sont le dernier signe en date de la détérioration de la situation en Europe de l'Est.

En juin dernier, les Slovaques ont chassé le gouvernement qui avait sorti le pays de son isolation au niveau international et du marasme économique dont il souffrait sous le régime autocratique de Vladimir Meciar. Mikulas Dzurinda, dont les réformes ont apporté croissance et stabilité économique au pays, a cédé la place à Robert Fico, un homme de gauche, qui a forgé une alliance avec Meciar, ainsi qu'avec un parti néo-fasciste, et adopté un style populiste assez inquiétant.

A la même époque, la Hongrie a réélu Gyurcsany qui a poursuivi un programme supposé réformiste, mais qui a aussi gravement creusé la dette publique. Le projet d'adoption rapide de l'euro a été remis dans les cartons et la date repoussée à 2011 ou 2012. Mais là encore, c'est prendre ses désirs pour la réalité. En attendant, les marchés financiers s'inquiètent du déficit budgétaire et parlent de crise grave.

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