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Уроки Намибии

ВИНДХУК – Зажатая между Анголой и ЮАР, Намибия сильно пострадала во время своей продолжительной борьбы с апартеидом. Однако после обретения в 1990 году независимости от ЮАР эта страна с населением 2,4 млн человек достигла огромных успехов, особенно за последнюю пару лет.

Важной причиной успеха Намибии стало внимание правительства страны к сфере образования. В то время как в развитых странах люди воспринимают как данность бесплатное начальное и среднее образование, во многих бедных странах средние школы (и даже начальные) являются платными. Более того, правительствам этих стран часто рекомендуется ввести плату за обучение для «возмещения затрат». Однако в Намибии государственные начальные школы являются бесплатным, а, начиная с нынешнего учебного года, бесплатным стало и среднее образование.

Правительство Намибии активно действует и на других важных направлениях. Предпринятые меры по ликвидации малярии позволили уменьшить число ежегодных случаев этого заболевания на 97% в течение примерно десятилетия. Вопреки глобальной тенденции роста неравенства, в Намибии коэффициент Джини (стандартный показатель неравенства распределения доходов) снизился примерно на 15 пунктов с 1993 года (хотя в тот момент он был одним из самых высоких в мире). Уровень бедности снизился более чем вдвое – с 69% в 1993 году до менее 30%, а уровень крайней нищеты (люди, живущие менее чем на $1,90 в день) упал примерно настолько же – с почти 53% до менее 23%.

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