布雷顿森林的崩溃

拉古娜海滩—1944年,44个同盟国的政治领导人齐聚新罕布什尔州布雷顿森林,建立了二战后国际经济和货币秩序框架。至此以后,世界发生了巨大的变化。在这70年里,不变的是对强大的多边机构的需要。但对布雷顿森林机构——国际货币基金组织(International Monetary Fund,IMF)和世界银行(World Bank)——的国家支持似乎滑落到历史最低水平,制约了全球经济实现潜力,也导致了地缘政治不安全。

布雷顿森林会议召开时,参与者都知道IMF和世界银行事关全球稳定。事实上,这两个机构就是为了阻止个体国家采取可能伤害其他国家表现、导致报复政策并最终伤害世界经济整体的短视政策而设计的。换句话说,它们的成立是为了防止众多主要经济体在大萧条和20世纪30年代所实施的以邻为壑政策。

此外,通过鼓励更好的政策协作、集中金融资源,布雷顿森林机构增进了国际合作的效果。它们还通过为面临暂时困境或难以满足发展融资需求的国家提供集体保险强化了稳定。

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