布雷顿森林的崩溃

拉古娜海滩—1944年,44个同盟国的政治领导人齐聚新罕布什尔州布雷顿森林,建立了二战后国际经济和货币秩序框架。至此以后,世界发生了巨大的变化。在这70年里,不变的是对强大的多边机构的需要。但对布雷顿森林机构——国际货币基金组织(International Monetary Fund,IMF)和世界银行(World Bank)——的国家支持似乎滑落到历史最低水平,制约了全球经济实现潜力,也导致了地缘政治不安全。

布雷顿森林会议召开时,参与者都知道IMF和世界银行事关全球稳定。事实上,这两个机构就是为了阻止个体国家采取可能伤害其他国家表现、导致报复政策并最终伤害世界经济整体的短视政策而设计的。换句话说,它们的成立是为了防止众多主要经济体在大萧条和20世纪30年代所实施的以邻为壑政策。

此外,通过鼓励更好的政策协作、集中金融资源,布雷顿森林机构增进了国际合作的效果。它们还通过为面临暂时困境或难以满足发展融资需求的国家提供集体保险强化了稳定。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/9R3rceM/zh;
  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now