Cuidado con la brecha

En la economía mundial en expansión de hoy, la mayoría de los países en desarrollo han estado creciendo rápidamente. Sin embargo, esto no ha disminuido la presión para reducir la enorme brecha en materia de ingresos entre los países en desarrollo y los desarrollados que ha configurado los debates globales durante más de medio siglo.

Las desigualdades internacionales, que ya eran considerables hace tres décadas, han seguido empeorando. La característica más preocupante de esta tendencia es el elevado número de “colapsos del crecimiento” de las últimas décadas del siglo XX, cuando sólo unas cuantas economías en desarrollo (Asia oriental, la India) pudieron sostener tasas de crecimiento altas.

Pero hay otra divergencia en los ingresos internacionales que exige nuestra atención. Desde 1980 el mundo ha sido testigo de una creciente brecha en los ingresos entre los países en desarrollo. Como lo subraya un reciente informe de las Naciones Unidas, el Estudio Económico y Social Mundial 2006 , de esta “divergencia dual” se derivan cuatro lecciones claves para el crecimiento económico en el mundo en desarrollo.

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