Le modèle irlandais face à la crise

DUBLIN – L’Irlande est désormais parvenue à s’extraire du cadre de sauvetage et d’austérité établi par le Troïka (Commission européenne, Banque centrale européenne, et Fonds monétaire international) à l’endroit des États les plus endettés de la zone euro, et opère aujourd’hui en première ligne de la relance économique de l’union monétaire. Pour un certain nombre de responsables politiques européenne, parmi lesquels l’ancien président de la BCE Jean-Claude Trichet, les efforts tenaces de l’Irlande en faveur de l’austérité constitueraient ainsi un modèle pour les autres pays.

Voyez-vous cela. Il n’y a pas si longtemps, le miracle économique irlandais était en effet également considéré comme un modèle – un pays qualifié de « phare de l’Europe » par le magazine The Economist en 1997 – suscitant l’admiration d’observateurs aussi divers et distants que la Chine et Israël. L’Irlande est en revanche devenue par la suite un modèle à ne pas suivre dans la gestion de sa bulle immobilière, puis de la crise bancaire. Bien que sa sortie du programme de la Troïka constitue bien évidemment une réussite, et notamment eu égard aux perspectives catastrophiques qui étaient celles du pays à la fin de l’année 2010, nul ne saurait aspirer à faire l’expérience de ce que l’Irlande a vécu.

La plupart des citoyens irlandais réfuteraient également très certainement l’idée selon laquelle leur pays incarnerait l’élève modèle en matière d’austérité. Le fait que le pays soit redevenu à la mode reflète une confusion au sein de la pensée économique des décideurs de la zone euro, ainsi qu’une folie de mimétisme parmi les différents think tanks et autres institutions internationales. Un modèle socio-économique digne de ce nom doit être construit autour d’une « manière de faire les choses » qui ait trait aux racines profondes du pays concerné – un modèle aussi profondément ancré et si fréquemment vanté que le modèle scandinave, par exemple, se révèle quasi-impossible à reproduire ailleurs.

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