Leon Neal/ Getty Images

反全球化“英国退出”大爆发

首尔—民粹主义、民族主义和仇外都为“脱欧”阵营在英国最近的欧盟成员资格公投中获胜贡献了力量。但这些力量只是更大的变局的表象:全世界范围内国家和市场关系的根本性变化。

自现代资本主义诞生以来,这两种人类活动的框架总体而言一直保持着独立。市场参与者追求经济利益,市场也随之在地理上不断扩大,而国家寻求人人遵守秩序和控制领土内的一切。一个商人可能察觉到外国的市场机会,但要追求这些机会,他会去找国家——最先找的是移民当局。

如何协调市场与国家之间的紧张是当今政治经济学的一个核心问题,一如十八世纪的亚当·斯密、十九世纪的弗雷德里希·李斯特(Friedrich List)和卡尔·马克思以及在整个二十世纪中叶就此问题进行长期论战的约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯和弗雷德里希·冯·哈耶克。

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