Marktlösungen, Umweltschutz und Marokko

In den letzten zehn Jahren sind Experimente mit marktwirtschaftlichen Mechanismen - wie Ökotourismus oder Handel mit Industrieemissionen - in Mode gekommen. In Afrika erwartet man sich von derartigen Versuchen einen Nutzen für alle Beteiligten: die Armen verdienen Geld und die Ressourcen werden erhalten. Die tatsächlichen Nettoeffekte dieser Programme werden allerdings oft nicht ganz verstanden.

Die Theorie hinter diesen marktwirtschaftlich orientierten, Ressourcen erhaltenden Maßnahmen ist einfach. Man schafft Märkte für derivative Produkte, um den Einheimischen den Wert der Ressourcen bewusst zu machen und sie zu deren Erhaltung zu bewegen. Entsprechend dieser Logik, haben zahlreiche Gruppen, die sich dem Schutz der einzigartigen marokkanischen Arganenwälder widmen, die kommerzielle Vermarktung des Arganöls begeistert begrüßt. Was dabei herausgekommen ist, sollte andere afrikanische Staaten allerdings veranlassen, das Potenzial dieser marktwirtschaftlich orientierten Lösung ihrer Umwelt- und Entwicklungsprobleme vorsichtig zu beurteilen.

Der Arganbaum ist ein einzigartiger und ökologisch bedeutsamer Bestandteil des trockenen Ökosystems im Südwesten Marokkos. Im 20.Jahrhundert wurde beinahe die Hälfte des Arganenwaldes durch die Nachfrage nach qualitativ hochwertiger Holzkohle und die Urbarmachung des Bodens für die Landwirtschaft vernichtet. Die UNESCO erkannte neben der Einzigartigkeit auch die anhaltende Bedrohung der Arganenwälder und erklärte dieses Gebiet daher im Jahr 1999 in ihrem MAB-Programm zum Biosphärenreservat.

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