Poverty Youth Unemployment Saad Sarfraz Sheikh

Inégalités des revenus et chômage des jeunes

CAMBRIDGE – Grâce à l’énorme succès de librairie du livre controversé de Thomas Piketty Le Capital au XXIe siècle, les inégalités de revenus – en augmentation depuis les années 1970 – occupent une fois encore le devant de la scène. Les débats sur la question se sont concentrés sur les nombreuses répercussions de cette tendance : fragilisation de la cohésion sociale, développement des bidonvilles, exploitation par le travail, et précarisation des classes moyennes. Un sujet a cependant peu retenu l’attention : le chômage des jeunes et le sous-emploi.

Depuis la crise économique globale, le chômage des jeunes a explosé partout dans le monde. Dans le monde développé, 18% des 16-24 sont sans emploi. En Allemagne, le chômage des jeunes reste relativement bas à 9%, mais il atteint 16% aux Etats-Unis, 20% en Grande Bretagne, et dépasse 50% en Espagne et en Grèce. La situation au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord est aussi similaire avec des taux de chômages des jeunes respectivement de 28% et de 24%. Par contre, seuls 10% des jeunes en Asie de l’Est et 9% d’entre eux en Asie du Sud sont sans emploi.

Mais les hommes politiques se sont peu préoccupés de ce problème. Le monde risque de créer ce que l’Organisation Internationale du Travail a appelé la « génération perdue », dans la mesure où l’on prévoit un taux de chômage des jeunes de 13% en 2018.

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