Китай председателя Мао через 60 лет

ЛОНДОН. Каждая страна создается на протяжении какого-то периода истории, но при этом страны часто фабрикуют и переписывают свою историю. История о том, как мы стали теми, кто мы есть, нужна, чтобы поддержать наше чувство племенной солидарности и успеха. Наш триумф и добродетели преувеличены; наши злодеи навязаны нам извне; наши неудачи скрыты. Все это делает изучение истории потенциально бунтарским, но чрезвычайно ценным занятием. Хорошие историки поощряют нас быть честными по отношению к себе. Они разрушают наш самообман.

Это особенно верно, когда речь идет о наших небезупречных героях, как мы сегодня видим из истории о том, как Коммунистическая партия трактует период Мао Цзэдуна. Шестьдесят лет назад в октябре Мао стоял на площади Тяньаньмэнь («Врата небесного спокойствия») в Пекине и объявил об образовании Народной республики. Момент обозначил окончание многолетней войны и ужасных лишений; революция была выиграна благодаря крови, жертвам, героизму и ошибкам врагов, а также манипуляционной помощи Сталина, который претендовал на звание друга. Времена алчных военных диктаторов, хищных империалистов и японских завоевателей были закончены; Китай мог подняться – хотя предстояло вынести еще много страданий, так как тирания Мао пустила свои корни.

Вердикты по поводу Мао очень различаются. Для коммунистов, придерживающихся жесткой линии, он был героем трижды – как историческая личность, как патриот и как фигура мирового масштаба. Но по словам смелого и харизматичного диссидента Вэй Цзиншэна, Мао «вверг практически весь Китай в состояние жестокости, лживости и нищеты».

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