花甲之年的毛泽东中国

发自伦敦——每个国家都由其历史塑造而成,然而与此同时,国家也虚构和重写他们的历史。我们如何走到今天的故事内容必须要考虑到我们的民族团结感和成就感。我们的成功和美德被过分夸大;我们中的坏人都被归为异类;而失败则被掩盖了。因为以上这些,对历史的研究都像是潜在的反动行为,但这也是十分值得的。好的历史学家鼓励我们诚实地面对我们自己,他们能够令我们停止自欺欺人。

这条道理对于我们的那些有缺陷的英雄来说尤其正确,就像如今我们所看到的中国共产党对于毛泽东的评价一样。60年前的这个十月,毛泽东站在北京天安门城楼的主席台上,宣布中华人民共和国的成立。那一刻标志着多年来的战争以及难以言说的苦难终于终结,而革命在经历了流血与牺牲,英雄主义与敌人的错误以及斯大林这个所谓朋友的操纵与干预之后,终于获得了胜利。充斥着军阀混战掠夺、帝国主义者的贪婪分割,以及日本侵略的几十年终告结束;而中国有了崛起的可能——即使从这一刻起,是毛泽东的专制统治落地生根,还有诸多的悲剧在等待着中国。

对毛泽东的评价差别极大。对于共产主义的强硬派来说,他是三重英雄——无论从历史学角度上,从爱国主义角度,还是从全世界的角度来说。而对于勇敢而富有感召力的不同政见者,魏京生来说,毛泽东“实际上把整个中国变为了一个充满暴力、欺骗和极度贫穷的国度”。

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