Pour que le FMI et la Banque mondiale oeuvrent pour les pauvres

La Banque mondiale fait depuis longtemps part de son rêve « d’un monde sans pauvreté ». De la même manière, le Fonds monétaire international souhaite sans doute « un monde sans crise financière ». Ces objectifs d’importance capitale et quelque peu décourageants sont pourtant trop limités pour le vingt-et-unième siècle. Pour conserver un intérêt, les institutions de Bretton Woods doivent pleinement s’adapter aux besoins des pays qui émergent rapidement, et elles peuvent commencer ce processus aux réunions communes FMI/Banque mondiale du printemps à Washington.

Bon nombre de personnes admettent à présent que le FMI doit voir au-delà de la gestion des crises financières et commencer à se pencher sur les comportements économiques non‑coopératifs – notamment dans le domaine monétaire. La communauté internationale gagnerait à ce que le FMI devienne un centre de suivi commun et de dialogue permanent entre les nations riches, pauvres et émergentes. Mais pour que cela soit possible, les deux dernières catégories de pays doivent avoir plus de poids.

Heureusement, ce type de réformes figure enfin parmi les priorités. Les réunions FMI/Banque mondiale de l’automne dernier ont approuvé une augmentation des quotas de vote pour certaines des économies émergentes les moins représentées : la Chine, le Mexique, la Corée du Sud et la Turquie. Une deuxième session de rajustement devra concerner d’autres économies accélérées sans étouffer la voix des pauvres.

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