Pedro Molina

Il ritorno della politica industriale

GINEVRA – La politica industriale è tornata in auge. Ovviamente, non è mai scomparsa davvero, soprattutto in quei paesi che aderiscono formalmente ai principi del libero mercato. Eppure il mondo post-crisi – in cui l’interventismo governativo ha ottenuto maggiore legittimazione nella vita economica – ne vedrà delle belle. Il successo della Cina e la tentazione di seguire la corrente del suo modello di sviluppo hanno altresì rinvigorito il fascino della politica industriale, e allo stesso modo vi hanno contribuito i migliori strumenti politici a disposizione e una maggiore esperienza su cosa funzioni o meno – un punto a cui tiene molto Justin Lin della Banca Mondiale.

In effetti, a seguito del dibattito sulla politica industriale promosso l’anno scorso dalla rivista The Economist tra i professori di Harvard Josh Lerner e Dani Rodrik, il 72% dei lettori si è espresso proprio a favore della politica industriale. I policymaker sembrano essere dello stesso parere, e non solo nei paesi in via di sviluppo, a giudicare dalla strategia “Europa 2020” lanciata l’anno scorso dall’Unione europea e dalla politica di green economy messa in atto dagli Stati Uniti.

Per i paesi in via di sviluppo, tuttavia, continuano a insidiarsi i vecchi pericoli della politica industriale. In primo luogo, i policymaker sbagliano spesso, sia quando scelgono a quali settori offrire il proprio sostegno sia quando attuano i relativi meccanismi; in secondo luogo, tendono a farsi “catturare” dagli interessi personali, soprattutto negli ambienti politici relativamente fragili, così incentivando favoritismi, inefficienze e sperperi.

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